Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs)
The data for our analyses of Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) provision across the Eastern Arc came from a pooled dataset of seven surveys of ~2000 households spread across 78 villages. These established that the four main NTFPs (by value and volume) are charcoal, firewood, thatch and poles. For each of these we built a household production model, based on spatial and household characteristics, which we then applied across our entire study area. Poles, firewood and thatch are almost entirely used directly by those who harvest them, but most charcoal is sold on to urban users, so for this we built additional flow, use and value models (the latter showing how prices increase with proximity to the largest city in the area - Dar es Salaam).
These models indicate that the overall value of collecting these four NTFPs across the Eastern Arc is approximately $42 M per year, with charcoal worth $14 M and firewood $25 M. These products are essential in the daily lives of many people living in the Arc as well as urban areas, providing a source of energy, housing, and cash income. Not included in this estimate are other important forest products such as wild-harvested vegetables, fruits, medicine and meat.
Our data suggest that the Eastern Arc currently provides around 11% of the combined charcoal consumption of Dar es Salaam, Tanga and Morogoro. Unfortunately, NTFP harvesting appears not to be sustainable in some areas and these benefits are hence likely to decrease in the future due to forest scarcity. We anticipate that this will create a significant energy problem nationwide, and will disproportionately impact the poorest people in rural communities, who depend on NTFPs for as much as one quarter of their household income.
Edge, A, Burgess, N.D., and R. Malimbwi (2009) The charcoal trade in eastern Tanzania. Miombo, 4: 5-8.
Schaafsma, M., Morse-Jones, S., Posen, P., Swetnam, R., Balmford, A., Bateman, I., Burgess, N., Chamshama, S.A.O., Fisher, B., Green, R., Hepelwa, A.S., Hernández-Sirvent, A., Kajembe, Kulindwa, K., Lund, J.F., Mbwambo, L., Meilby, H., Ngaga, Y.M., Theilade, I., Treue, T., Vyamana, V.G., and Turner, R.K. (2012) Spatially explicit functions for extraction of Non-Timber Forest Products; a case study on charcoal in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Ecological Economics 80: 48-62.
Schaafsma, M., S. Morse-Jones, P. Posen, R.D. Swetnam, A. Balmford, I.J. Bateman, N.D. Burgess, S.A.O. Chamshama, B. Fisher, T. Freeman, V. Geofrey, R.E. Green, A.S. Hepelwa, A. Hernández-Sirvent, S. Hess, G.C. Kajembe, G. Kayharara, M. Kilonzo, K. Kulindwa, J.F. Lund, S.S. Madoffe, L. Mbwambo, H. Meilby, Y.M. Ngaga, I. Theilade, T. Treue, P. van Beukering, V.G. Vyamana, R.K. Turner. The importance of local forest benefits: valuation of Non-Timber Forest Products in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. CSERGE Working Paper.
Hepelwa, Aloyce (2012) Non-timber forest products and their economic values from the East Usambara Mountains. Partly supported PhD thesis. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.